Planetary Motion of Quattro "J" Type Hydrodynamic CCC / Inter-compatibility /
You will note that the motion in a Quattro "J" type is a PLANETARY MOTION.
That is the bobbin rotates on its own axis as it is rotating around the central axis.
The Earth does this as it rotates around the Sun.
One different CCC concept would be the Moon Motion Hydrodynamic CCC, where the bobbin will
not rotate on its own axis as it rotates around the central axis. From historic literature these are
usually suggested to be far inferior with respect to retaining stationary phase, or achieving
resolution of certain targets, for many biphasic systems. We have ourselves compared moon to
planetary designs, and confirmed the historic text results for many biphasic solvents.
Please note that there are over 60 fundamentally different CCC concepts, if you consider both
Hydrodynamic CCC and the radically different concepts encompassed by the phrase, Hydrostatic
Very many design concepts are totally incompatible with alternative design
concepts with respect to both their biphasic solvent choice and their resolving
Methodologies developed on one concept will often not transfer to a different concept.
Even within a single design concept, changing key design parameters, can for certain biphasic
solvent systems, when combined with certain targets, cause methodologies to not transfer from
one "J" type to another "J" type. In certain cases this occurs for one droplet CPC (Note; sun or
centrifugal partition, droplet CPC, HPCPC are only one family group version of Hydrostatic CCC)
to another droplet CPC design as well. This may mean that users will not achieve comparable
efficiency of resolution between the different CPC designs (see literature).
COUNTER CURRENT & CENTRIFUGAL PARTITION CHROMATOGRAPHY, PLUS HPLC, IL-LC AND SFC
Together AECS-QuikPrep (UK) and Couturier (France) bring you World Leading products for High Performance Liquid-Liquid Chromatography™ at scales from micro-gram to tonnes per annum
Let us help you to better understand operation of a "J" Type Hydrodynamic CCC,
and also how Quattro HPL-LC™ compares to other CCC/CPC designs
Please watch video closely. It can be replayed by clicking on green button.
Please Note: The Quattro HPL-LC™ "Set Speed", once at dialled speed, is very constant. The
judder in video is an artefact of camera and Internet technologies.
Quattro HPL-LC™ / HTPrep™ Video (2 bobbins, 4 coils / 3 coil id’s). Door safety
mechanism disabled for this demonstration
video.Set spin speeds are very constant.
The video judder is caused by
UNDERSTANDING HYDRODYNAMIC "J" TYPE CCC
But first: Your safety
For this demonstration we have over-ridden the door interlock safety, which would normally
prevent rotation when the door is open. The door interlock not only enhances your safety, but it
is a legal requirement in Europe to meet stringent EEC Safety Laws. Instruments without
adequately strong door interlock or adequately safe, "Safety Cabinet Enclosures" built to contain
appropriate centrifuge hazard, cannot legally be used in the EEC. It is both an offence to sell
such devices, and also to use them in the EEC if now purchasing as new units. The USA has
somewhat similar standards. Other Countries vary regarding legislation, but you should always
consider your own safety, as not all manufacturers do.
We do, others don't.
Independent risk assessment engineers have been consulted by AECS-QuikPrep Ltd to ensure we
met EEC standards for a planetary centrifuge (much more stringent requirements than
your standard bench, sun centrifuge), and they have confirmed the suitability and in fact
the requirement of the equivalence of our 10 mm thick casework, massive hinges and door
interlock. Other units sold in Europe have far less robust designs, and we will leave it to you to
assess competitor's units' fitness for purpose. Your own safety experts should review the
suitability of any unit with thin mild steel casework for a planet centrifuge, but be aware we
consider them inappropriate, and unsuitable for use in Europe. Please also note our case design
gives exception access to rotor chamber when the door is open, compared to other design.
The above is why ALL QUATTRO CCC™ / HPLLC™ ARE MODULAR from Mk IV onwards,
and all share the same fundamental design parameters, with only coil id / chamber
size normally varying between models.
Please Note; for a Quattro CCC™ / HPL-LC™ a simple generic methodology strategy is
supplied, which will allow clients unfamiliar with L-LC to rapidly develop methods for their
Quattro HPL-LC™ instrument.
Some competitors will not make you aware of the potential of non-transfer of methodologies
between different concepts.
Certain competitors quite intentionally even try to play down the significance of this, by only
showing limited ranges of target compound and solvent systems. This situation might apply to
say Pharmaceutical companies utilising a very limited polarity range / backbone structure type
of target, but would not be appropriate for anyone contemplating using a wide range of
backbone structures or biphasic solvents.
Please be careful you are not fooled by inappropriately presented, publications or commercial
marketing, as certain Research Institutes are publishing in CCC / CPC where the Institute
and/or staff also have commercial interests in certain competitor's CCC / HPCCC / CPC /
HPCPC designs. Possibly this has encouraged some bias in apparently academic publications?
We will leave you to decide. This is often more of a problem with Industrial Scale-Up, rather
than in routine laboratory situations, but may occur in all situations.
ALL QUATTRO CCC™ / HPLLC™ ARE MODULAR
We should all marvel at the thought process of Dr Ito, at NIH, Bethesda, USA who
well over 30 years ago first rationalised, designed and made both design and
chemistry work for so many of the modern day CCC & CPC concepts, including the
Click on either thumbnail of the
Quattro CCC (above) or one of the two
Partitron HPCPC brochures (below) to
read full brochure content.
We stress that the complexity of interpretations of "G" Force calculations and defining the
mathematics of mixing / settling cycles in a "J" Type is surprisingly still open to considerable
Certain Academic Institutes and their related commercial puppet companies claim their
calculations are correct as adamantly as others dispute their calculations, or they alternatively
ignore each other. We will reserve judgement on this matter, but will agree that all "J" Type
create a fluctuating "G" field, with the highest "G" often in the 70 to 350+ "G" range.
Videoing biphasic solvents inside "J" type planetary centrifuges have shown visibly that the
fluctuation in "G" field will cause mixing and settling cycles in a "J" type CCC. These videos also
show that the Beta Value (Ratio of Sun to Planet Radius) is critical.
"G" Force calculation plus full understanding of mixing / settling calculation still
under debate, do not believe anyone who says otherwise.
Please remember that anything that increases your safety risk or the unit's build cost, such as
increasing speed for a unit with a sun / beta value of a Quattro CCC™ / HPLLC™ above 900 rpm
to achieve "240 G"; be that a Quattro HPLLC™ (High or Ultra "G" unit) or competitor's middle
sized, HPCCC, has to be justifiable.
With bores of less than 1mm it is justifiable, because small bores require high "G". We agree
with this requirement.
With bores of 1.6 mm or more, the timesaving of HPCCC are often very much less than
portrayed by bias competitor's claims.
Please be careful to always compare same bores, when assessing flow rates. In CCC / L-LC as
in HPLC, it is linear flow rate that is maintained, and this relates to bore id. We are aware
competitors' comparing our 2.1mm or less than 4 mm id on our historic models to their 4 mm
bore on their current models. This is totally inappropriate marketing.
The costs of necessary safety features, additional solvent costs and inconvenience of using two
flows into two bobbins to match weights for 200 ml + units, to prevent out of balance, all weigh
against over 900 rpm in HPCCC units with close to Quattro CCC™ / HPLLC™ sized sun / planet
Please note, with competitor's mini units, with cotton reel sized sun / planet assemblies, 2000+
rpm is required to achieve same "G" as a Quattro CCC™ / HPLLC™ at ~ 900 - 1250 rpm.
A key criterion for you to consider is, does the higher speed required for "240+ G"
increase cost of HPCCC for given volume? It usually does quite significantly. If so, this
means that competitor's or a Quattro HPCCC requires you to purchase a smaller
volume unit per equivalent price.
This can be a false economy. You may need to do four to six + separate injections on
a small volume mini competitor HPCCC unit to equal the mass loading on an
The IntroPrep™ is already considerably cheaper, and has four + times the volume /
mass loading. If the mini is twice as fast per cost, but has a quarter to sixth mass
loading, it is very significantly inferior in mass per time usage / at given price. In fact
certain smaller volume competitors units are closer to the price of the QuikPrep™,
which has up to 14 times the competitors HPCCC volume.
The above is WORTH YOU THINKING ABOUT?
Quattro CCC™ / HPLLC™ offer you competitive pricing, options of PTFE or Stainless Steel etc coil
material, large volume per price equivalence, custom choice of coil material / bore and number
of coils, option of up to 4 different volume coils, with potentially all of different bore id. Their
reliability has been proven in use around the World. They are designed for ease of use and quick
maintenance. They have proven flying lead life of very many years for numerous users
(excluding client induced accidental precipitation blockages). Quattro CCC™ / HPLLC™ have
enhanced user safety features with standard unit, plus option of additional safety features. All
mark out the Quattro CCC™ / HPLLC™ as World Leaders in CCC / HPCCC / CPC / HPCPC /
HPLLC™ / HPLLE™.
Compare our prices, unit for unit, volume for volume, they are the best in the World
on a price / performance / safety / convenience of use / routine maintenance
ALWAYS REMEMBER THAT VALUE RELATES TO THINGS OTHER THAN ANALSIS TIME.
The Earth is a planetary system, why do I not feel these big "G" force fluctuations, as
I live on a planet?
The answer relates to the Beta Value, that is the ratio of the planetary radius to the ratio of sun
radius. The radius of the Earth is very, very small, compared to the distance the centre of the
Earth to the centre of the Sun (that is the sun radius). As a result of the Earth's very low Beta
value, the day / nighttime, that is closest Sun / furthest from Sun, are only minimally different
The Quattro CCC™ Mk I and Mk II (all intellectual property exclusively owned by AECS-QuikPrep
Ltd) of the early 1990's were the first CCC to be designed with no central sun shaft. In that way
we uniquely achieved very high maximum beta values. Others use Beta Values of 0.5 or less for
their minimum Beta Values. We on the majority of our designs use minimum Beta values of well
over 0.6, but on some occasions our minimum Beta value is over 0.8.
Others now copy aspects of our original designs, and we have recently commissioned our legal
advisors to shortly debate the legality of that with them, given their historic written legal
agreements with us as. These written legal agreements were signed by both Academic
Institutions and as individuals (academic staff), (now also shareholders in recently formed
Many novices and even some well-known users to CCC / CPC consider the science of
liquid - liquid chromatography radically different chromatographically from open
tubular / flash or HPLC chromatography, which is often referred to as solid - liquid
What are AECS's views?
Dr Leslie Brown and AEC-QuikPrep Ltd believe the fundamentals of L-LC / CCC / CPC are almost
exactly the same as most supposed forms of solid-liquid chromatography.
Please consider reverse phase HPLC / Flash Chromatography both of which often utilise C4 / C8
/ C18 phases bonded to silica and other solid supports.
Nobody would dispute C8 is a liquid (it is after all, a major liquid constituent of petrol / gasoline).
C4 is a liquid under minimal pressure, and C18 is a wax, which liquidises easily with little heat.
Indeed the earliest texts on reverse phase HPLC referred to the science as Liquid-Liquid
Chromatography (please go to the internet and search Liquid-Liquid Chromatography) and was
not initially referred to as Solid-Liquid Chromatography (that misnomer has developed through
muddled thinking in recent years).
Therefore any Researcher or Quality Control Chromatographer who has utilised
Reverse Phase HPLC is already practising Liquid-Liquid Chromatographer.
Recently research ever more increasingly suggests that polar solvent enriched boundary layers
in HPLC phase use can occur in both reverse and normal phase HPLC.
It is now being recognised that partitioning occurs between the bulk liquid and the polar solvent
enriched boundary layer as a first selectivity occurrence. Only after this interaction will selectivity
occur between the liquid phase immobilised on the solid surface and the target. At AECS, we are
chromatographers with many decades of research experience in the design of HPLC phases (see
our website www.chiral-hplc.com ). We keep aware of all advances in HPLC phase technologies
as well as Liquid - Liquid Chromatography / Extraction.
If you consider aqueous reverse phase, aqueous normal phase, HILIC and even normal phase
where a polar solvent constitutes part of the mobile phase, then HPLC users are themselves
every day already doing High Performance Liquid-Liquid Chromatography™.
This is why we do not teach our clients the use of "suck it and see, set ratio, Witch's Brew
approach" to method development such as HEWAT etc that all our competitor's teach.
We teach them chromatographic optimisation principles for their HPL-LC™.
The only difference between HPLC and HPL-LC™ is in HPLC a chemical bond is used to
immobilise the liquid stationary phase, and in the Quattro HPL-LC™ a
electro-mechanical instrument immobilises one phase in a biphasic mixture.
This is why we believe it is essential to teach our clients' the fundamental chromatography
principles behind biphasic solvent choice and do not, as do our competitors' suggest they brew
up their selection from a range of fixed solvent ratios that you chose from their pre-described
list, which may or often, does not work.
We treat you as thinking researchers and chemists, not as burger bar cooks following a simple
We hope you will prefer our more scientific approach.
visiting our NEW DEMONSTRATION LABORATORY near Newquay Airport, only 1
hour flight from London Gatwick, and with good connections to many
National & International Airports.
Please consider requesting Dr Leslie Brown visiting you to discuss your larger scale process needs.
If you are interested in collaborative
research, please suggest a topic.We are
particularly interested in high pressure SFE
/ SFC / SFC-MS / L-LC direct to MS
applications, but have a general interest in
many subjects from trace to process quantities.
During each rotation of the bobbin on its own planetary axis, in the Quattro CCC / HPLLC™, a
single point in the tube will twice for every revolution around the sun axis, be close to the
central axis and twice close to the furthest point from the central axis.
When furthest from central axis it will experience maximum "G" Force. When closest to central
axis it will experience minimum "G" Force. These "G" force differences are very considerable,
and will induce alternately, near instantaneous mixing and then settling of the chosen biphasic
This would be analogous to doing not 1 to 3 separations in a standard
laboratory-separating funnel, but instead using the instrument to do 100,000+ such
mixing / settling cycles per hour.
This is why targets can be resolved which have very similar Partition Coefficients
In a separating funnel targets with near 1 value for K would never be resolved.
In a CCC/CPC the optimum range of separation is between the K ranges of 0.5 to 2.
A Partition Coefficient of 1 should elute in 1 coil volume.
Relatively simple test tube partition/settling tests will in over 80% of cases mean K
value resolution, as predicted from test tube partition/settling time tests, will be
achieved with instrumentation.
Some exceptions will occur. Contact us to discuss.
Why utilise a Planetary Motion?
At low Beta values, little mixing settling occurs.
The Quattro CCC™ / HPLLC™ has depending on coil configuration chosen, the highest Beta
Values ever available.
These mixing and settling cycles will happen very quickly. At 900 rpm they are occurring 1800
times per minute. Routinely for safety and to ensure long life, whilst maintaining sensible
costs, most Quattro CCC™ / HPLLC™ rotate at approximately 900 rpm. But models are
available with 1250 rpm or even up to 2000 rpm as customer need for their application. We
have experience of 240 "G" (equivalent competitor's HPCCC, and uniquely to us 350+ "G"
We do not agree with statements regarding High "G" applicability as seen in published or
commercial literature (Note, these are often same research group), except in certain limited
biphasic solvent systems / specific target types.
Our custom Quattro High "G" units have the highest "G" values ever available in HPCCC.
Therefore from our own experience, which dates right back to our late 1990's experimentation
with High "G" whilst collaborating on a BBSRC joint research programme with Brunel University
(BIB) etc, we do agree with certain competitors that High "G", above 100 "G," such as 240 "G"
is essential for 0.8 mm and 0.5mm bores. But we also believe for larger bores, 240 G may not
even be appropriate for most laboratories, if cost/benefit criteria are examined.
Excessive component wear caused by the intrinsic out of balance forces of a "J" Type Planetary
HPCCC make high volume, and therefore high spun mass bobbins of over 6 litres potentially
commercially suspect for long-term, routine process usage, even at 70 to 140 "G".
For 24/7/365 process usage, a high spun bobbin mass, high volume "J" Type, HPCCC (240 G)
of over 6 litres capacity is in our opinion close to commercial insanity. Certain others having
seen academic prototypes operational, agree with us. We believe you would be ill advised to
chose such a unit. But if you do, please ensure your warranty with regards to
scale-up success and usage reliablity is extremely effective.
We have experience of both HPCCC and HPCPC and consider it would be better for you to buy
an intrinsically balanced, sun centrifuge, HPCPC for over 6 litre capacities. Ideally we would
recommend a HPCPC with one or more, modular, 25 litre per rotor(s), such as the Partitron
HPCPC (uniquely available with a titanium rotor).
Understanding importance of Beta Balues
Why not ask competitors to put their claims regarding predictable scale-up with
their non-modular units, which have radically different, planet to sun radii, speed
ranges, coil bore id etc into writing with some form of guarantee?
In the past they always refused to do this.
Also ask our competitors the time to change both sun and planetary bearings on their units?
Then ask us? You might be shocked at how much quicker our maintenance procedures are,
and how long certain of our competitor's repairs would take.
We do believe it is a fact that many aspects of your safety become excessively critical as speed
increases above 900 rpm. To overcome these safety concerns does considerably increase cost
of instrumentation for little practical gain in performance. It requires usage of procedures and
additional safety features that have never been required in 20+ years for 900-rpm units.
We do believe that serious out of balance can occur when filling new biphasic solvent into a
300 to 1000+ml coils, once speeds are higher than 900rpm for unit of Quattro HPLLC™ planet
and sun radii.
With competitors this forces clients to need to pump at same time into two different bobbins.
So if you only wish to utilise say a 500 ml bobbin, you are with competitors High "G" units
forced to fill both bobbins with stationary and mobile phase, with resultant DOUBLING OF
YOUR NEEDED SOLVENT COSTS WHEN USING COMPETITORS HPCCC as compared to a
We do believe that dogma and marketing hype, not practical science, has driven High 240 "G"
research for most non-small bore applications (sub 1mm id are different)(with sub 1 mm bore
unique mixing / settling / bore / wall boundary layer effects do force the requirement for
In these small-bore circumstances we can offer the highest "G" available.
We will happily debate this in detail with you. Please contact us on
OK we see Planetary Centrifuge design creates impressive mixing and settling
characteristics, but how is one phase of biphasic liquid retained, while other
immiscible phase passes through, being alternately mixed and settled?
This one you can prove easily to yourself.
Your answer is based on the Archimedean Screw Principle.
If you fill a transparent tube half with water, leaving half filled with air, whilst blocking both
ends. Tie a cord and now spin over your head. No matter which direction you spin, the water
will go in the direction of the spin. This is defined as the HEAD.
The less dense air will be displaced by the denser water and go in opposite direction from spin.
This is defined as the TAIL.
If you replaced the air with hexane, as hexane is less dense than water, the same would occur.
In this scenario when utilising hexane or other less dense than water solvents, the water will
still go to the Head, and other less dense organic solvents will go to the Tail.
But if you replaced the air with chloroform or dichloromethane or another solvent denser than
water, now the denser organic solvent would go towards the Head and the Water towards the
If you combine all of the above, you will have rationalised the design of a "J" type hydrodynamic
Explain to me simply, why a planetary centrifuge works?
Let us consider an analogy. On the Planet Earth, consider two immiscible fluids AIR & WATER.
Take a relative flow of one phase compared to other. In this case the wind blowing air over the
water's surface (with Quattro CCC™ the wind would be equivalent set flow of HPLC pump for
mobile phase relative to stationary phase).
In your normal reality "G" stays the same and wind speed varies.
BUT CONSIDER IF WIND STAYED SAME AND "G" VARIED.
On Earth with 1 "G" a set, given wind speed creates 2-metre wave.
How big would wave be at 100 "G"? Yes you are correct if you suggested wave would be hardly
How big would wave be at 0.01 "G"? Yes you are correct if you suggested air and water would
instantly mix and both disappear off to space?
Hey you have almost re-invented a "J" type Hydrodynamic CCC
Your 1st Choice for Preparative and Process Chromatography / Extraction
OUR NEWS BOX AECS-QuikPrep
Ltd has begun a three way collaboration with University of Belfast and
UCL, London for EPSRC funded Grant Research into Unique Applications of
IONIC LIQUID use in Quattro CCC and CPC.
Quattro HPCPC™ suitable for IONIC LIQUIDS, and LIQUID-CO2 applications such as possibly SFE, SFC, just released.
New Demonstration Only 6 litre ATEX, Partitron HPCPC™ Mk 2 available to view.
New Demonstration 4.5 litre non-ATEX, Quattro PilotPrep Mk 9
Available for demonstrations. Suitable for large scale preparations in
Highly Specialist Titanium Multi-Dimensional
Machining of 25 Litre Rotor which was designed by,
and is machined by ourselves
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